Supporting Literature

1DiFranco KM, Johnson-Farley N, Bertino JR, Elson D, Vega BA, Belinka BA Jr, Kachlany SC. LFA-1-targeting Leukotoxin (LtxA; Leukothera®) causes lymphoma tumor regression in a humanized mouse model and requires caspase-8 and Fas to kill malignant lymphocytes. Leuk Res. 2015 Jun;39(6):649-56.

2Kachlany SC. Mechanisms of LtxA (Leukotoxin), a Potent New Anti-Inflammatory Agent for the Treatment of Alopecia Areata. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2015 Nov;17(2):19-22.

3 Gupta A, Espinosa V, Galusha LE, Rahimian V, Miro KL, Rivera-Medina A, Kasinathan C, Capitle E, Aguila HA, Kachlany SC. Expression and targeting of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) on white blood cells for treatment of allergic asthma. J Leukoc Biol. 2014 Oct 23.

4Kaur M, Kachlany SC. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin (LtxA; Leukothera) induces cofilin dephosphorylation and actin depolymerization during killing of malignant monocytes. Microbiology. 2014 Nov;160(Pt 11):2443-52.

5DiFranco KM, Kaswala RH, Patel C, Kasinathan C, Kachlany SC. Leukotoxin kills rodent WBC by targeting leukocyte function associated antigen 1. Comp Med. 2013 Aug;63(4):331-7.

6Brown AC, Balashova NV, Epand RM, Epand RF, Bragin A, Kachlany SC, Walters MJ, Du Y, Boesze-Battaglia K, Lally ET. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin utilizes a cholesterol recognition/amino acid consensus site for membrane association. J Biol Chem. 2013 Aug 9;288(32):23607-21.

7DiFranco KM, Gupta A, Galusha LE, Perez J, Nguyen TV, Fineza CD, Kachlany SC. Leukotoxin (Leukothera®) targets active leukocyte function antigen-1 (LFA-1) protein and triggers a lysosomal mediated cell death pathway. J Biol Chem. 2012 May 18;287(21):17618-27.

8Hioe CE, Tuen M, Vasiliver-Shamis G, Alvarez Y, Prins KC, Banerjee S, Nádas A, Cho MW, Dustin ML, Kachlany SC. HIV envelope gp120 activates LFA-1 on CD4 T-lymphocytes and increases cell susceptibility to LFA-1-targeting leukotoxin (LtxA). PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e23202.

9Gupta A, Le A, Belinka BA, Kachlany SC. In vitro synergism between LFA-1 targeting leukotoxin (Leukothera™) and standard chemotherapeutic agents in leukemia cells. Leuk Res. 2011 Nov;35(11):1498-505.

10Stenderup K, Rosada C, Dam TN, Salerno E, Belinka BA, Kachlany SC. Resolution of psoriasis by a leukocyte-targeting bacterial protein in a humanized mouse model. J Invest Dermatol. 2011 Oct;131(10):2033-9.

11Kachlany SC, Schwartz AB, Balashova NV, Hioe CE, Tuen M, Le A, Kaur M, Mei Y, Rao J. Anti-leukemia activity of a bacterial toxin with natural specificity for LFA-1 on white blood cells. Leuk Res. 2010 Jun;34(6):777-85.


Hematologic Diseases

Hematologic diseases (leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma) are cancers of white blood cells that are often deadly and difficult to treat. Preclinical efficacy studies have shown that Leukothera™ is highly effective at eliminating malignant white blood cells both under laboratory conditions and in animals.

Read More

Autoimmune Diseases

Autoimmune and inflammatory diseases comprise a range of disorders that are characterized by the abundant presence of chronically activated WBCs. Leukothera® specifically targets these activated WBCs without affecting healthy cells and tissues.

Read More

HIV

HIV infects white blood cells and can hide from our immune system within them. Current therapies can target replicating virus, but do not eliminate the HIV-infected cells. These infected white blood cells are what prevent any current drugs from curing HIV infection.

Read More