Supporting Literature

1DiFranco KM, Johnson-Farley N, Bertino JR, Elson D, Vega BA, Belinka BA Jr, Kachlany SC. LFA-1-targeting Leukotoxin (LtxA; Leukothera®) causes lymphoma tumor regression in a humanized mouse model and requires caspase-8 and Fas to kill malignant lymphocytes. Leuk Res. 2015 Jun;39(6):649-56.

2Kachlany SC. Mechanisms of LtxA (Leukotoxin), a Potent New Anti-Inflammatory Agent for the Treatment of Alopecia Areata. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2015 Nov;17(2):19-22.

3 Gupta A, Espinosa V, Galusha LE, Rahimian V, Miro KL, Rivera-Medina A, Kasinathan C, Capitle E, Aguila HA, Kachlany SC. Expression and targeting of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) on white blood cells for treatment of allergic asthma. J Leukoc Biol. 2014 Oct 23.

4Kaur M, Kachlany SC. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin (LtxA; Leukothera) induces cofilin dephosphorylation and actin depolymerization during killing of malignant monocytes. Microbiology. 2014 Nov;160(Pt 11):2443-52.

5DiFranco KM, Kaswala RH, Patel C, Kasinathan C, Kachlany SC. Leukotoxin kills rodent WBC by targeting leukocyte function associated antigen 1. Comp Med. 2013 Aug;63(4):331-7.

6Brown AC, Balashova NV, Epand RM, Epand RF, Bragin A, Kachlany SC, Walters MJ, Du Y, Boesze-Battaglia K, Lally ET. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin utilizes a cholesterol recognition/amino acid consensus site for membrane association. J Biol Chem. 2013 Aug 9;288(32):23607-21.

7DiFranco KM, Gupta A, Galusha LE, Perez J, Nguyen TV, Fineza CD, Kachlany SC. Leukotoxin (Leukothera®) targets active leukocyte function antigen-1 (LFA-1) protein and triggers a lysosomal mediated cell death pathway. J Biol Chem. 2012 May 18;287(21):17618-27.

8Hioe CE, Tuen M, Vasiliver-Shamis G, Alvarez Y, Prins KC, Banerjee S, Nádas A, Cho MW, Dustin ML, Kachlany SC. HIV envelope gp120 activates LFA-1 on CD4 T-lymphocytes and increases cell susceptibility to LFA-1-targeting leukotoxin (LtxA). PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e23202.

9Gupta A, Le A, Belinka BA, Kachlany SC. In vitro synergism between LFA-1 targeting leukotoxin (Leukothera™) and standard chemotherapeutic agents in leukemia cells. Leuk Res. 2011 Nov;35(11):1498-505.

10Stenderup K, Rosada C, Dam TN, Salerno E, Belinka BA, Kachlany SC. Resolution of psoriasis by a leukocyte-targeting bacterial protein in a humanized mouse model. J Invest Dermatol. 2011 Oct;131(10):2033-9.

11Kachlany SC, Schwartz AB, Balashova NV, Hioe CE, Tuen M, Le A, Kaur M, Mei Y, Rao J. Anti-leukemia activity of a bacterial toxin with natural specificity for LFA-1 on white blood cells. Leuk Res. 2010 Jun;34(6):777-85.

Hematologic Diseases

Hematologic diseases (leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma) are cancers of white blood cells that are often deadly and difficult to treat. Preclinical efficacy studies have shown that Leukothera™ is highly effective at eliminating malignant white blood cells both under laboratory conditions and in animals.

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Autoimmune Diseases

Autoimmune and inflammatory diseases comprise a range of disorders that are characterized by the abundant presence of chronically activated WBCs. Leukothera® specifically targets these activated WBCs without affecting healthy cells and tissues.

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HIV infects white blood cells and can hide from our immune system within them. Current therapies can target replicating virus, but do not eliminate the HIV-infected cells. These infected white blood cells are what prevent any current drugs from curing HIV infection.

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